Basic Concepts of Operating Systems.

An Operating Systems is a program, which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware.
An Operating System is an important component of a computer system which controls all 
other components of the computer systems. Major components of a Computer System are:

1. The Hardware 
2.  The Operating System
3. The Application Program Routines (Compilers, linkers, database management systems, utility programs)
4. The Humanware (users)
Basic Concepts of Operating System

Where hardware Provides the basic computing resources, the application program routines define the ways in which these resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users and the Operating System controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for various users.

Role of Operating System

The operating systems provides certain services to programs and to the users of the programs. Some common services provided by operating system can be listed as follows :

    (i) Program Execution
    (ii) Handling Input/Output Operations 
    (iii) Manipulation of File System
    (iv) Error detection and handling
    (v) Resource allocation
    (vi) Accounting
    (vii) Information and Resource Protection

Functions of Operating System

Operating system's functions broadly fall into three categories - Essential  functions, Monitoring functions and Services functions.

Essential functions ensure effective utilisation of computer system resources; Monitoring functions monitor and collect information related to system performance and service functions 
enhance facilities provided to user.

The major functions of an Operating system are:

1. Processor Management

The Processor management function of an Os allocates an important computer resource CPU to various running programs or applications. A running program or application is also 
called process. This function of an OS prepares, schedules, controls, and monitors jobs  or
processes submitted for execution to ensure the most efficient processing. A job is a collection of one or more related programs and their data.

2. Memory Management

The memory management function of an Operating System manage another crucial resource of computer - the computer memory. This function allocates memory to the running processes and de-allocates memory form the process, when it gets completed.

3. File Management

The File Management function of an OS governs the permanent storage and retrieval of data/to an external storage device. It ensures the proper saving of data at the appropriate location. It is also responsible for the retrieval of data from the storage device.

4. Device Management 

This function of an operating system is responsible for proper handling of input and output devices. This functions ensures smooth reading of data from the input devices and sending the data to correct output devices.

5. User Interface

The OS establishes a standard means of communication between users and their computer systems. It does this by providing a user interface and a standard set of commands that control the hardware.

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