What is Memory in Computer

As Human Beings have a brain and memory too; So, if CPU is termed as the brain of a Computer, it must also have a memory. Certainly,it has a memory, known as primary memory or main memory. 
The memory in computer is often called primary memory or main memory. It is also known as RAM (Random Access Memory).
Memory or main memory stores all information in cells also called memory locations, in the forms of binary digits. 0 and 1 are called binary digits.
The amount of information that can be held in the main memory is known as memory capacity. The capacity of main memory is measured in kilobytes (KB) or Megabytes (MB) or Gigabytes (GB) .

Types of Memory in Computer

Memory holds data after it is fed into the system and before it is processed; and it holds the data after it has been processed but after it has been released to the output device. It also holds the programs (computer instruction) needed by the CPU.
   There are the two types of built-in memory, in a computer system:
  • Non-Volatile Memory
  • Volatile Memory 
Non-Volatile Memory in Computer 
A Non-Volatile Memory is that which retains the data, even when the computer is turned off. ROM is an example of non-Volatile memory.

ROM stands for read only memory, as the name specifies, there is no way of changing it. Putting data Permanently into this kind if memory is called 'burning in the data'. In ROM, instructions are written permanently in the form of routines (small programs) such as BIOS that are necessary for booting and other functions of a computer. A Programmer cannot modify instructions written in ROM chip. BIOS is a software that is built into a ROM chip and that is run when the computer is first turned on.
There are the two types in ROM like, PROM, EPROM, and EEPROM, which can be programmed after manufacture.
  • Programmable ROM (PROM): ROM chips memory cell contains a 1. In order to store data or software on it, the contents of selected cells are changed to 0. For PROM chips, this process is irreversible. The contents of PROM can only be written or programmed once by using a special wrong device. The writing process in PROM is performed electrically by manufactures; special equipment is needed to perform this writing operation. Therefore PROMs are more flexible than ROMs.

What is Memory in Computer

  • Erasable ROM (EPROM): It is a user programmed semiconductor memory. In this memory, stored data can be reprogrammed, selected memory cells can be set to zero value. But, the writing operation is not simple; because it requires the erasure of entire storage cells to bring them back to their initial state. The storage cells EPROM chip are erased by exposing them to ultraviolet light. This erasure process consumes a lot of time. Once all the cells have been brought to their initial state, the contents/programs can be written electrically into EPROM. EPROM's do not require prior erasure of previous contents for writing contents/programs into them. This is the reason why they are becoming popular.

What is Memory in Computer

  • Electrical Erasable PROM (EEPROM): In this memory, individual cells can be reprogrammed by reversing the voltage used to create a 0. EEPROMs are used where the application requires stable storage without power, but where the chip may have to be reprogrammed.An important application of ROM is for storing tables of trigonometric functions, which do not change, Another application of ROM is to store programs for special applications.

What is Memory in Computer

Volatile Memory in Computer

A volatile memory is that, which loses its contents, when the computer's power is shut down or switched off.

RAM stand for random access memory and its volatile memory. A memory that can be changed and accessed randomly is called RAM. The purpose of RAM is to hold the programs and data for processing. Information can be read off a RAM chip and written on it. When a computer is switched off, any information stored is RAM is lost.
Most of today's computers use CMOS (Complementary Metal- Oxide Semiconductor) technology for RAM. But there is a major problem with semiconductor storage. When the electrical current is turned off or interrupted, the data is lost.
The capacity of RAM is expressed in terms of the number of bytes it can store. Memory capacity is usually expressed in terms of kilobytes (KB), which is equivalent to 1024 bytes of storage, and in terms of megabytes (MB) which is quivalent to 1,048,576 bytes.

What is Memory in Computer

Function of RAM 
RAM provides temporary storage for programs and data to be processed by the CPU. All programs and data must be transferred to RAM from an input device or form secondary storage before programs can be executed or data can be processed. RAM space always has a priority; therefore, after a program has been executed, the storage space it occupied is relocated to another program waiting for its execution. The input instruction is interpreted, and the processor initiates the action to the retrieve the appropriate program and data from secondary storage. This is a nondestructive read process, The program and data that are read, resides in the RAM (temporarily) and secondary storage (permanently).
The data is manipulated according to program instructions and information is received at output. A program instruction or a piece of data stored in a specific RAM location is called an address. Address permits program instructions and data to be located, accessed and processed.


These are the Memory in Computer uses in Computer and Next Part of this article in Coming tomorrow on Secondary Memory.

Full article on Memory in Computer Thank You For read this article Hope all doubts are clear for this topic if this post is helpful share on social media sites to help other guys. 

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